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WHAT IS CRYOGENICS?

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    Cryogenics is a derivative of two Greek words - "Kryos" which means cold or freezing and "genes" meaning born or one that is produced.

     Residual stresses exist in all types of parts from engines to tooling.  The stress is introduced into the part at the time of casting, forging, heat treating or machining.  These stresses create an invisible random grain pattern.  Parts expand from the heat generated during operation, the retained stresses cause uneven expansion which results in increased dimensional instability with increased wear and decreased performance.

     Deep Cryogenic temperatures are required to effect a complete molecular change in most alloys giving the microstructure a more uniform grain structure.  Deep Cryogenic temperatures distribute large quantities of very hard, fine carbides, that develop uniformly throughout the structure.

   
Heat treatment of steel involves the transformation from its softer more malleable annealed state to a harder more durable state.  This is done, as it has been for centuries, by heating the steel and then rapidly cooling it.  The result is a harder and more wear resistant object.  The metallurgical reason for this is that as the steel is heated, it forms an austenite (large, unstable particles of carbon carbide) crystal structure or matrix.  Rapidly cooling or quenching the steel (traditionally at room temperature) triggers some of the austenite structure to change into a different matrix called martensite (a more uniformly refined grain structure).  It is the martensite structure that gives tempered steel its hardness and wear resistance for applications from cutting tools to engine parts.

  The goal of heat treatment is to transform as much of the austenite as possible into martensite.  However, some of the austenite is retained even after tempering.  Through experimentation it was found that if the quench was lower than the traditional room temperature, less austenite was retained.  Cryogenic treatment is an extension of the well known heat and quench cycle.  Cryogenic Processing is specifically about controlled thermal cycling of materials over a period of up to 72 hours.

  The austenite to martensite transformation achieved by deep thermal cryogenics is responsible for the exceptional wear characteristics due to a denser structure and resulting in a larger surface area of contact wiich reduces stress, fatigue, friction, heat and wear.


  
Cryogenic processing is a one time process, not a coating or surface treatment that can be machined away.  It will not make the component more brittle or change its physical size. 

                     
 

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WHAT HAPPENS TO CRYOGENICALLY PROCESSED MATERIAL
Cryogenically processed engines enjoy an increase in HP & Torque and prolonged engine life

Abrasive wear resistance is increased

A denser molecular structure is created in processed parts

The resulting stronger surface area that is created reduces friction, hear and wear

Allows for rapid cooling of treated parts such as brake rotors

High frequency and harmonic vibration is significantly reduced or eliminated

Soft retained austenite is transformed to much harder martensite

Microfine carbide fillers are formed which enhances the large carbide structures

Durability or wear life of processed parts is greatly increased

Residdual stresses are decreased

Brittleness is decreased

Tensile strenght, toughness and stability is increased coupled with the release of internal stresses